Although in recent years the temperatures, especially at our latitudes, are less rigid than in the past (there is talk of global warming and a reason there will be), continue to practice backpacking even at medium altitudes during the winter time still requires adaptations to the climatic and environmental diversity which can be found. First of all, we must consider that the hours of light available are much less than in the summer, and this becomes a drawback to plan long expeditions that just during the summer can be finished in the day.
Another important factor to consider is the terrain, which if not rocky could be made heavy by the rains and melting snow, actually slowing down our walking pace. If there is a snowpack instead, you can decide to continue the itinerary using snowshoes, in the case of fresh or powder snow, while for the frozen snow it is necessary to opt for the crampons, which ensure greater grip especially when the slope increases.
Finally, clothing and equipment are also influenced by the season. Obviously, technical items must be selected to guarantee adequate thermal insulation even during the hours of the day; also, a first layer of merino wool, material that keeps the body at the right temperature, allows the exchange of water particles to the outside and isolates perfectly from the cold. Finally, the shoes must be suitable both to the identified trail and for the cold, then with a thermal lining more efficient than the summer ones, and perhaps an insole with a layer of insulating material such as aluminum, which reflects the cold and does not allow the passage towards the foot.
Following these precautions, it will be possible to face the mountain routes even during the winter season, always paying attention to the weather conditions and relying, if possible, to alpine guides for greater safety.